Friday, 25 March 2011

Addendum re Expert evidence on causation

­ CLINICAL NEGLIGENCE (in part)
IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE CLAIM NO. HQ11X01668
QUEENS BENCH DIVISION
between:-
ROBIN PHILIP CLARKE

Claimant

and
THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
/ THE CHIEF DENTAL OFFICER

Defendant

ADDENDUM TO PARTICULARS OF CLAIM IN RESPECT OF EXPERT EVIDENCE OF CAUSATION



The claimant wishes to add the following paragraphs in response to suggestions of possible desirability or presumed necessity of including expert opinion on causation (as is usual in clinical negligence claims).

A. Asserted expertise is the tort itself in this case, and the asserted experts are the Defendants themselves.

  1. We need to start by considering what the reason for having expert reports is anyway.
  1. A judge understandably does not reckon to have great expertise in all manner of medical specialisms. So the judge delegates some judgement to the specialist expert who is then considered as potentially a useful contributor of evidential input.
  1. But the present case is crucially different from the usual clinical negligence cases. In just about every case of clinical negligence the alleged tort is some action carried out contrary to proper expertise. But in this case the tort is the false expertise itself. The pretence of expertise is itself the main issue on trial.
  1. So any asserted expertise on causation would hold an entirely different role in this case than in just about any other clinical negligence case or even personal injury in general. Rather than having a role as usefully efficient authoritative evidential input, its role here would be more like one of contentious allegations by a defendant on trial. The Defendants in this case would have you believe that they themselves are the nation’s supreme experts on causation.

B. Non-existence of the relevant expertise

  1. Furthermore, in this case there is in reality no expert skill or experience to call on anyway. There is not some established school or developed skill of diagnosis of amalgam illness causation. Rather it has to be a simple matter of judgement of how well the facts of the individual patient relate to the facts of the science of amalgam toxicity. And that judgement is far from something requiring much training or experience. It’s a lot less complex than the legal expertise commonly called for in clinical cases.
  1. We can here easily demonstrate the shallowness of the Defendant’s own fantasies of there being expertise available in this field. As indicated in the Particulars of Claim (Paragraph 27), the only “expertise” the NHS raised over the past year in response to the Claimant’s own unusually persistent requests for diagnosis and treatment was the following:
a) Dr Pradhan stated there was no capability for diagnosing mercury poisoning anywhere within the Birmingham and Solihull MHFT (now confirmed by a FOI reply from BSMHFT, which further claimed — in psychotically unrealistic defiance of the most basic facts in Para 23 below — that “chronic mercury poisoning is highly unlikely to present in a psychiatric setting”).
b) The NHS toxicologists then proposed a urine test, well-known for many years to be useless pseudoscience (as per Particulars page 12).
c) The NHS toxicologists next proposed a blood test, also well-known for many years to be useless pseudoscience (as per Particulars page 12).
d) The HOBtPCT PALS thereafter referred the Claimant’s own diagnostic evidence ONLY to their Dental advisory panel, consisting of “Senior Commissioning Manager, Dental Nurse Tutor, Finance Manager, Commissioning Manager, Dental Education Tutor, Specialist Registrar in Dental Public Health”, and of which “It is not a requirement for the Panel to hold any specialist knowledge in these fields [of mercury toxicity, neurology, psychiatry, toxicology, allergy, endocrinology, dermatology or immunology diagnosis].” http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/dental_mercury_toxicity_and_prev#incoming-173533
7. That is, over the whole last year, the entire resources of the BSMHFT and HOBtPCT have at best been able to deploy only the cheapest of pseudo-expertise which even a non‑expert can expose as what it is. In an accounting case you wouldn’t need an expert in accounting to give an expert opinion that “22 + 33 = 99” is untrue. The Defendants’ nonsenses here are only a moderate amount more intellectually challenging (and in the case of the BSMHFT and Chief Dental Officer’s make-believe science, quite a lot less), and certainly within the capabilities of any High Court Judge to see through.

C. Such expertise would not satisfy the test of being “reasonably required”.

8. CPR 35.1 states that “Expert evidence shall be restricted to that which is reasonably required to resolve the proceedings.”.

  1. In the present case, even if such expert opinion on causation were to somehow exist, it would not be “reasonably required to resolve the proceedings” anyway. That is because it is a simple matter of judging how well the facts of the individual patient relate to the facts of the science of amalgam toxicity. Indeed, as page 54 of the definitive book “Amalgam Illness” by Andrew Hall Cutler states: “With these you can get about as good an idea as any physician would have of whether you are mercury-poisoned”. That is, the world’s top expert on the subject says there is no requirement for an “expert opinion” on causation.
  2. The facts can suffice alone for reaching a conclusion.

D. The role of Fact evidence relating to causation

 

11. In the CPR and associated documents, there appears to be ambiguity about what expert evidence is supposed to be. Sometimes it appears to be considered synonymous with opinion evidence (and specifically from a person with experience rather than mere recall of facts). But elsewhere there is a notion that any such opinion must be accompanied by an extended account of the facts upon which it is based, such as citations to scientific publications.

12. This ambiguity appears to reflect confusion of two distinct concepts within the word “expertise”. On the one hand, just having the maximal knowledge of all the facts of a subject may be taken as a definition of maximal expertise. On the other hand, competence in forming sound opinions (and producing sound results thereby) may be considered the prime characteristic, regardless of less-than-encyclopedic knowledge.

13. In this context, CPR PD16: 4.3 is likewise ambiguous. It refers to “evidence of a medical practitioner” and “a report from a medical practitioner”, but makes no mention of opinion or of causation, let alone opinion about causation, or even “expert reports” or “expert evidence”:

“Where the claimant is relying on the evidence of a medical practitioner the claimant must attach to or serve with his particulars of claim a report from a medical practitioner about the personal injuries which he alleges in his claim.”

14. In the context of all the above, the Claimant is capable of providing the factual basis for an opinion on causation. There is no need to rely on an opinion of the Claimant, because it will be well within the capability of the Court to form its own opinion from the presentation of the facts.

15. Because the Claimant will be acting only as a supplier of challengeable facts, rather than of opinion, any bias of the Claimant will be immaterial. A fact does not become less true for being adduced by an interested party. Were there any bias or other error in the Claimant’s presentation of facts, it could easily be exposed by the far more powerful resources of the Defendants.

16. If the Defendants still claim that relevant experts do exist (even though those experts would have to be claiming to have expertise in diagnosing a disease they claim does not exist anyway) and if the Court permits such purported expert evidence, the Claimant will dismiss their assertions with his own presentation of facts. The Court will then see for themselves the reason why the Defendants’ “experts” never reply to their critics. “Several official reports have shown that two plus two equals three”; “But it doesn’t; see here are two pennies….”; “But we have several official reports by leading qualified experts here which prove that two plus two does equal three”.

The facts which enable a conclusion about causation without need for any expert reports or opinions

Facts which rule out alternative causations.

17. Schizophrenia: The Claimant has never had any characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia/psychosis in four decades of illness. And schizophrenia is anyway not a causation but instead a merely descriptive syndrome of largely mysterious causation but which can include mercury in its causation anyway.

  1. Wilson’s disease: According to the Wilson Disease Association
    http://www.wilsonsdisease.org/about-wilsondisease.php
    and Wilson’s Disease Support Group UK
    http://www.wilsonsdisease.org.uk/WDSG-P2.asp
    “Wilson disease affects approximately one in 30,000 people worldwide.”
    “No matter how the disease begins, it is always fatal if it is not diagnosed and treated.”
    And yet this disease has not yet come anywhere near to killing the Claimant in several decades of not being diagnosed or treated.
And the Claimant has no sign of the Kayser-Fleischer rings depicted at
http://www.wilsonsdisease.org/wilson-disease/kayserfleischerrings.php

19. Lead poisoning: The Claimant didn’t develop a habit of sucking or sniffing lead from age 17 onwards. None of his parents or two younger or two older brothers have had any such illness or disability despite sharing a common environment. No-one has ever suggested lead poisoning or found any test results evidence of it from the Claimant.
Due to his father being a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chemistry he was aware from an early age that lead was somehow very dangerous.

20. Other mercury sources: No other plausible source of mercury intoxication that remotely compares with storing several ounces of the hazardous waste product with unreacted element in one’s mouth for several decades 2 inches from one’s brain.

21. There is more on alternative causations in Particulars, Paragraphs 112-115.

 

Facts which point to dental mercury causation.

22. Firstly, the facts in Particulars Paragraphs 109-111 and associated chart.

23. In respect of Paras 109(a-b), the characteristic symptoms of chronic mercury vapour are documented in innumerable studies and sources and case histories:

a) “References documenting symptoms to mercury exposure” published by the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, www.iaomt.org ; the first seven in their list are all very familiar as major symptoms of the Claimant, namely irritability, anxiety/nervousness, loss of memory, inability to concentrate, lethargy/drowsiness, insomnia, mental depression/ despondency/withdrawal; plus also very familiar, 9: muscle weakness, 11: tremors of hands, legs, eyelids, 12: decline of intellect, 13: loss of self-confidence, 16: bleeding gums, 18: loosening of teeth, etc.

b) Mats Hanson “Effects of Amalgam Removal on Health; 25 studies comprising 5821 patients” lists the main removal findings as “fatigue, anxiety/depression, muscle pains, headache, concentration problems, joint problems, metal taste, mouth symptoms, vertigo/dizziness, gastrointestinal problems, memory disturbances, problems with sight, irritability, sleep disturbances, heart problems, skin problems, allergies, problems with hearing, numbness, infection-prone (bold added here to indicate this Claimant’s most notable symptoms in that list).

c) That metareview by Hanson is more fully discussed in Particulars Para 22 along with three later studies cited there.

d) Extensive further documentation of causation of these same symptoms can be seen in excerpts here appended from www.flcv.com/depress.html and www.flcv.com/amalg6.html.

e) Many other case reports of “~miraculous~” recovery from such chronic symptoms are being pretended away by the medical denialocracy and publishing system. See heshamelessawy channel on youtube for just a start.

f) The classic book “Amalgam Illness” by Andrew Hall Cutler http://www.amazon.com/Amalgam-Illness-Diagnosis-Treatment-Better/dp/0967616808 more fully explains about some of these symptoms, with extended commentary about the extreme indecision (/“procrastination”) and fatigue causing marginal ability to cope with everyday life (page 71-2), despite appearing to be quite healthy and performing passably at testing times (pages 13 and 78), the prolonged crashing after exercise (page 86), the difficulties of impaired temperature regulation (page 27), and the impairment of adrenal and thyroid functioning (multiple pages).

g) The same book states on page 28 that “Victims of chronic mercury poisoning have difficulty metabolising alcohol and often give up drinking it because they do not enjoy it, or feel terrible after a drink or two”, which exactly reflects the Claimant’s experience from teenages onwards.

h) The same book also explains at some length about the deteriorations that can result from thiol-containing (“sulfur”) foods, as relates to the Claimant’s experiences with camembert and reblochon cheeses (Particulars Para 110).
--Sourabie AM, et al. First identification of two potent thiol compounds in ripened cheeses.
--Berger C et al. Production of Sulfur Flavors by Ten Strains of Geotrichum candidum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999 December; 65(12): 5510–5514.
--
Bartschi C, Berthier J, Valla G. Inventaire et √©volution des flores fongiques de surface du reblochon de Savoie. Lait. 1994;74:105–114.

i) Graeme Munro-Hall “Critique on SCENIHR preliminary report” reviews extensive studies showing that periodontal disease is caused by amalgams.

j) Katsunuma T, Iikura Y, Nagakura T, Saitoh H, Akimoto K, Akasawa A, Kindaichi S (1990). Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: improvement after removal of amalgam in dental caries. Ann Allergy 64:472-475.

Differences between oral mercury vapour and ambient mercury vapour.

24. There is a discrepancy between symptoms associated with amalgam and those associated in previous centuries with ambient mercury vapour such as from mining or hat-making. This is that tremor (and also or instead a fine jerkiness of intended movement, called intention tremor) was a regular main complaint of the earlier reports and yet not very notable in reports of amalgam illness.

25. The Claimant himself noticed that he only experienced this tremor symptom in the months after he moved to his present address, before he had arranged it to have an adequate system of ventilation at breathing-level, and specifically on wind-less days. Ventilation soon stopped this symptom.

26. These observations can be clearly understood in terms of different routes of intake of mercury vapour. Ambient vapour would partly enter in through the skin (just as it exitted through the skin when mercury miners used sauna for detoxing). It would thereby more strongly impact on the nerves nearer the surface which control the eyelids and fingers. By contrast, amalgam, being so close to the brain, and with the mercury known to easily travel the short distance up axons to the pituitary, would impact much more on the brain.

27. Finally, as the Defendants seem to have no clue what real expertise looks like, appended here as examples are the Claimant’s most recent scientific papers.

 

STATEMENT OF TRUTH
I believe that the facts stated in these particulars of claim are true.
---------------------------------------------------------------
Signed
Robin Philip Clarke
Claimant
Dated


Bernard Windham compilation of references re amalgam removal cases
[….]
VI. Results of Removal of Amalgam Fillings
[…] There are extensive documented cases (many thousands) where removal of amalgam fillings led to cure or significant improvement of serious health problems such as: [Arrows ( ) indicate symptoms prominent with the Claimant;
lines
( ) indicate other symptoms significant at some time / somewhat]
periodontal diseases (tissue inflamation,metal mouth,mouth sores,bone loss,burning mouth,etc.) (8,35,40,46,57,60,62,75,78,82,94,95,100,115,133,192bcf,212,222, 233abcdefgh,271,313,317,321,322,341,376,525,532,538,551,552,572,583),
oral lichen planus/leukaplakia (56,86,87,90,101,168, 313a)
oral keratosis (pre cancer)(87,251,543b),
immune system/ autoimmune problems (8,35,60,62,222,270,271,313,323,322, 342,91,212, 229,291,452, 470, 485,523,532,552),
multiple chemical sensitivities (26,35,60,62,95,222,229,232,233,115,313,342,537,583),
allergies (8,26,35,40,46,62,94,95,97,165,212,222,228,229,233,271,317,322,349, 376,469,525c,532,557,583),
asthma (8,75,97,222,228,271,322,552,556,557),
chronic headaches/migraines (5,8,34,35,47f,62,95,185,212ab,222,229,233abdefgh,271, 317,322, 349,354,115,376,440,453, 523, 525,532,537,538,552,556,583,595),
epilepsy (5,35,309,229,386e,557),
tachycardia and heart problems (8,35,59,94,115,205,212,222 ,232,233bcdg, 271,306, 310,322,525c,554,556,557),
blood conditions (8,212,222,232,233,271,322,523,551,35,95),
Chron’s disease (60,222,229,469,485),
stomach (gastrointestinal) problems (8,35,62,95,212ab,222,228,229, 233bdg,271,317,322, 440,469,525c, 532) ,
lupus (12,35,60,113,222,233,323,537),
dizzyness/vertigo (8,40,95,212,222,229,233bcdgh,271,322,376,453,525c,551,552),
joint pain/arthritis (8,35,62,95,103,212ab,222,229,233abcg,271,313,322,358,386de,469, 523,525c,538,551, 552,556,557,583),
insomnia (35,62,94,212,222,233ag,271,317,322,376,525c,583),
MS (62,94,95,102,163,170,212,222,229,271,291,302,322,369,469,485,34,35c,229, 523,532),
ALS (97,246,423,405,469,470,485,535,35),
Alzheimer’s (62,204,251c,386e,535,35),
Parkinson’s/ muscle tremor (222,248,228a,229,233f, 271,322, 469,557,212,62,94,98,35),
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (8,35,47f,60,62,88,185,212,293,229,222,232,233abcdfgh,271, 313, 317, 322, 323,342, 346, 369,376,386de, 440, 469, 470,523,532,537,538, 551,552, 556,557,595),
nausea (525c),
neuropathy/paresthesia (8,35,62,94,163,212,222,322,556,557),
muscular/jointpain/Fibromyalgia (5,8,35,60,62,185,222,233bcfg,293,317,322,346,369, 440, 469,470,523,527,532,538,552,94),
infertility (9,35,38,229,367),
endometriosis (229,35,38,9),
autism (601)
schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (294,465,34,35),
memory disorders (8,35,94,212,222,322,437,440,453,552,557,595),
depression (62,94,107,163,185,212,222,229,233bcfh,271,294,285e,317,322,376, 386de,437,453, 465,485,523, 525c,532,538,551,556,557,583,595,35,40),
anger (212,233,102,557,35,62),
anxiety & mental confusion (62,94,212,222,229,233abcfgh,271,317,322,440,453,525c, 532,551, 557,583, 35,57),
susceptibility to infections (35,40,62,222,233cd,251,317,322,349,350,469,470,532),
antibiotic resistant infection (251),
cancer (breast,etc./leukemia/oral) (35,38,94,180,228a,469,486,530,543b),
neuropathy/paresthesia (8,35,62,94,163,212,222,322,556,557),
alopecia/hair loss (40,187,271,317,322,349,583),
sinus problems (35,40,47f,94,222,271,322,532,583),
tinnitus (8,35,62,94,222,233cdg,271,322,349,376,525c),
chronic eye conditions: inflamation/ iritis/ astigmatism/myopia /cataracts/macula degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, color vision loss,etc. (35,222,233abcg,271,322, 440,529),
vision disturbances (8,35,62,212,233abcg,271,322,525c),
eczema and psoriasis (62,168b,212b,233c,322,323,385,342, 375, 408, 459,525c,557),
autoimmune thyroiditis (369,382,91),
skin conditions (8,62,212,222,233bc,322,525c,583),
urinary/prostrate problems (212,222),
hearing loss (102,322,35),
candida (26,35,404,537,etc.),
diabetes (35,369,etc.), etc.
The above over 60,000 cases of cure or significant improvements were not isolated cases of cures; the clinical studies indicated a large majority of most such type cases treated showed significant improvement. Details are available and case histories. For example, one of the clinics (95) replacing amalgams in a large number of patients with chronic conditions had full recovery or significant improvement:
in over 90% of cases for: metallic taste, tender teeth, bad breath, and mouth sores;
in over 80% of cases for: depression, irrational fear, head aches/migraines, irritability, dizziness,insomnia, bleeding gums, throat irritation, nasal congestion or discharge, muscle tremor, and leg cramps;
in over 70% of cases for: bloating or intestinal cramps, skin reactions, sciatic pain, chest pain, poor memory, urinary disorders, fatigue, poor concentration/ADD, watery eyes;
in over 60% of cases for: allergies, constipation, muscle fatigue, cold hands/feet, heart problems.
A Jerome meter was used to measure mercury vapor level in the mouth, and the average was 54.6 micrograms mercury per cubic meter of air, far above the Government health guideline for mercury (217).
Some of the above cases used chemical or natural chelation to reduce accumulated mercury body burden in addition to amalgam replacement. Some clinics using DMPS for chelation reported over 80% with chronic health problems were cured or significantly improved (222,271,359).
Other clinics reported similar success. But the recovery rate of those using dentists with special equipment and training in protecting the patient reported much higher success rates than those with standard training and equipment, 97% versus 37 to 88% (435). [….]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Numerous studies have found long-term chronic low doses of mercury cause neurological, memory, behaviour, sleep, and mood problems (5,72,74,107,109, 290,etc.).
Many studies of patients with major neurological diseases have found evidence amalgam fillings may play a major role in development of conditions such as
depression (94,107,109,212,222,229,233,285c, 294,317,320,322,372,374,453),
schizophrenia (34,35,295,601),
memory problems (70,94,212,222,600),
Occupational exposure to mercury has been documented to cause depression and anxiety (534).

References (of the above depress.html) overleaf….

[full references for the amalg6.html excerpt are available at that webpage]


References for depress.html excerpt
(5) Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: Biological Markers in Depression, R. Mossner, O. Mikova,, E. Koutsilieri, M. Saoud,AC Ehlisi, N. Mullers, AJ. Fallgatter & P. Riederer, The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2007; 8(3): 141_174; http://wfsbp-verband.globit.com/fileadmin/pdf/guides/WFSBP Consensus Paper Biological Markers in Depression.pdf
(34) Patrick St√∂rtebecker, Associate Professor of Neurology, Karolinska Institute , Stockholm. Mercury Poisoning from Dental amalgam‑ a hazard to the human brain, Bio-Probe, Inc. ISBN: 0-941011001-1
(35).Huggins HA, Levy,TE, Uniformed Consent: the hidden dangers in dental care, 1999, Hampton Roads Publishing Company Inc; & Hal Huggins, Its All in Your Head, 1997; & Center for Progressive Medicine, 1999, http://www.hugnet.com
(70) D.Echeverria et al, "Behavioral Effects of Low Level Exposure to Hg vapor Among Dentists", Neurotoxicology & Teratology; 17(2):161-168(1995);
(72) D.L.Smith,"Mental effects of mercury poisoning", South Med J 71:904-5,1978.
(74) A.C.Bittner et al, “Behavior effects of low level mercury exposure among dental professionals”, Neurotoxicology & Teratology, 1998, 20(4):429-39.
(94) F.Berglund, Case reports spanning 150 years on the adverse effects of dental amalgam, Bio-Probe, Inc.,Orlando, Fl,1995;ISBN 0-9410011-14-3 (245 cured)
(107) R.L.Siblerud et al, Psychometric evidence that mercury from dental fillings may be a factor in depression,anger,and anxiety", Psychol Rep, v74,n1,1994 ; & Amer. J. Of Psychotherapy, 1989; 58:575-87; & Poisoning and Toxicology compendium, Leikin & Palouchek, Lexi-Comp,1998, p705.
(109) Y.X. Liang et al,"Psychological effects of low exposure to mercury vapor", Environmental Med Research, 60(2): 320-327, 1993; & T.Kampe et al, "Personality traits of adolescents with intact and repaired dentitions",Acta Odont Scand,44:95-,1986; & R.Kishi et al, 1994, Residual neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to mercury vapor”, Occupat Envir Med., 1:35-41.
(212) Ziff, M.F., “Documented clinical side effects to dental amalgams”, ADV Dent. Res.,1992; 1(6):131-134; & Ziff, S.,Dentistry without Mercury, 8th Edition, 1996, Bio-Probe, Inc.,ISBN 0-941011-04-6; & Dental MercuryDetox, Bio-Probe, Inc. www.bioprobe.com. (cases:FDA Patient Adverse Reaction Reports-762, Dr.M.Hanson-Swedish patients-519,Dr. H. Lichtenberg-100 Danish patients,Dr. P.Larose- 80 Canadian patients, Dr. R.Siblerud, 86 Colorado patients, Dr. A.V.Zamm, 22 patients).
(222) M. Daunderer, “Improvement of Nerve and Immunological Damages after Amalgam Removal”, Amer. J. Of Probiotic Dentistry and Medicine, Jan 1991
(229) M.Davis,editor, Defense Against Mystery Syndromes”, Chek Printing Co., March, 1994 (case histories documented)
(233) Sven Langworth et al,”Amalgamnews and Amalgamkadefonden, 1997 and Svenska Dogbladet,1997 (286 cases); & F. Berglund, Bjerner/Helm, Klock, Ripa, Lindforss, Mornstad, Ostlin), “Improved Health after Removal of dental amalgam fillings”, Swedish Assocn. of Dental Mercury Patients, 1998. (www.tf.nu) (over 1000 cases) (Sweden has decided to phase out amalgam fillings & Gov’t maintains health records on all citizens)
(285)(c) Effects of low exposure to inorganic mercury on psychological performance. Br J Ind Med. 1990 Feb;47(2):105-9. Soleo L, Urbano ML, Petrera V, Ambrosi L. & (e) M.S.Hua et al, “Chronic elemental mercury intoxication”, Brain Inj, 1996, 10(5):377-84; & (f) Gunther W, et al, Repeated neurobehavioral investigations in workers, Neurotoxicology 1996; 17(3-4):605-14;
(290) D. Echeverria et al, Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam” FASEB J, Aug 1998, 12(11):971-980.
(294) “Do amalgam fillings influence manic depression?”, Journal of Orthomol.. Medicine, 1998, www.depression.com/news/news_981116.htm
(295) Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 20th Ed., Bennett & Plum, W.B. Saunders and Company, Philadelphia, 1996, p 69; & Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol 18(6), 1977, pp595-598, & poisoning & Toxicology Compendium, Leikin and Palouchek, Lexi-Comp., Cleveland, 1998.
(317) S.Zinecker, “Amalgam: Quecksilberdamfe bis ins Gehirn”, der Kassenarzt, 1992, 32(4):23; “Praxiproblem Amalgam”, Der Allgermeinarzt, 1995,17(11):1215-1221.(1800 patients)
(320) U.F.Malt et al, “Physical and mental problems attributed to dental amalgam fillings”, Psychosomatic medicine, 1997, 59:32-41. (99 cured)
(322) P.Engel, “Beobachtungen uber die gesundheit vor und nach amalgamentfernug”,Separatdruck aus Schweiz. Monatsschr Zahnm. 1998, vol 108(8).(75 cases amalgam removal) http://soho.globalpoint.ch/paul‑engel
(372) Atchison WD. Effects of neurotoxicants on synaptic transmission. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1998, 10(5):393-416; & Sidransky H, Verney E, Influence of lead acetate and selected metal salts on tryptophan binding to rat hepatic nuclei. Toxicol Pathol 1999, 27(4):441-7; & Shukla GS, Chandra SV, Effect of interaction of Mn2+withZn2+, Hg2+, and Cd2+ on some neurochemicals in rats. Toxicol Lett 1982, 10(2-3):163-8; &Brouwer M et al, Functional changes induced by heavy metal ions. Biochemistry, 1982, 21(20): 2529-38.
(374) Benkelfat C et al, Mood lowering effect of tryptophan depletion. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1994, 51(9): 687-97; & Young SN et al, Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males. Psychopharmacology, 1985, 87(2):173-77; & Smith KA et al, Relapse of depression after depletion of tryptophan, Lancet 1997, 349(9056):915-19; & Delgado PL et al, Serotonin function, depletion of plasma tryptophan, and the mechanism of antidepressant action. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990, 47(5):411-18.
(453) Blumer W, "Mercury toxicity and dental amalgam fillings", Journal of Advancement in Medicine, v.11, n.3, Fall 1998, p.219
(534) Tirado V, Garcia MA, Franco A., Pneuropsychological disorders after occupational exposure to mercury vapors, Rev Neurol 2000 Oct 16-31;31(8):712-6; & Powell TJ. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of mercury poisoning on a group of chemical workers. Brain Inj 2000 Sep;14(9):797-814
(600) B.Windham, Health Effects of Mercury/Amalgam and Results after Replacement of Amalgam Fillings. (contains over 3000 medical study references and approx. 60,000 cases of amalgam replacement documenting recovery from 40 chronic health conditions, as documented by the treating doctor or dentist). www.flcv.com/amalg6.html

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